Impact of Racism & Oppression on Birth Outcomes

Articles & Books

Amnesty International. (2010). Deadly Delivery: The Maternal Health Care Crisis in the USA. London: Amnesty International Secretariat.

Barnes-Josiah, D. (2004). Undoing Racism in Public Health: A Blueprint for Action in Urban MCH. CityMatCH.

Beckfield J, & Krieger N. (2009). Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities – Evidence, gaps, and a research agendaEpidemiol Rev, 31:152-177. [full text]

Braveman, P & Gruskin, S. (2003). Defining equity in healthJ Epidemiol Community Health 57:254-258. [full text]

California Families for Access to Midwives. (2017). A resource list to educate yourself on why black women and babies are dying in the USA. Retrieved from:

Callister, LC & Birkhead, A. (2002). Acculturation and perinatal outcomes in Mexican immigrant childbearing women: An integrative reviewJ Perinat Neonat Nurs 16, no.3: 22-38.

Dominguez, TP. (2008). Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 51(2): 360–370.

Dominguez, TP. (2010). Adverse birth outcomes in African American women: The social context of persistent reproductive disadvantageSocial Work in Public Health, 26(1):3-16. [Full text].

Harding, GS, ed. (2005). Surviving in the Hour of Darkness: The Health and Wellness of Women of Colour and Indigenous Women. Calgary, Alberta, CA: University of Calgary Press.

International Center for Traditional Childbearing. (2011). The Oregon Black Birth Survey.

Jackson, FM, Phillips, MT, Rowland Hogue, CJ & Curry-Owens, TY. (2001). Examining the burdens of gendered racism: Implications for pregnancy outcomes among college-educated African-American women. Mat Child Health Jour, 5(2):95-107.

Jackson, FM. (2007). Race, Stress, and Social Support: Addressing the Crisis in Black Infant Mortality. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Health Policy Institute.

Kreiger, Nancy et al. (2008). The Fall and Rise of US Inequities in Premature Mortality: 1960–2002PLoS Medicine 5(2): 227-241.

Krieger, N & Smith, GD. (2004). “Bodies Count,” and Body Counts: Social Epidemiology and Embodying InequalityEpidemiol Review 26: 92–103. [full text]

Lu, M & Halfon, N. (2003). Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: A life-course perspectiveMaternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1):13-30.

National Center for Health Statistics. (2013). Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care. Hyattsville, MD.

Pérez, M. (2012). Maternity care in a “majority minority” country. RH Reality Check blog.

Roberts, D. (1998). Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Vintage Books.

Williams, DR., Neighbors, H. & Jackson, J. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studiesAm J Pub Health 93(2): 200-208. [full text]


Bezruchka, S. (2010). TEDxRainier. YouTube.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. “A discussion with Camara P. Jones MD, MPH, PhD.

Ferrer, Barbara. Boston Public Health Commission. 2008. “Understanding Health Inequities in Boston.” Slideshare presentation.

Lu, Michael. 2008. “How racism impacts pregnancy outcomes.” Unnatural Causes.

Unnatural Causes… is inequality making us sick? DVD. San Francisco, CA: California Newsreel.

  • Transcript (PDF) from “When the Bough Breaks,” a film segment that examines the mystery of the Black-white infant mortality gap from the film series Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making Us Sick?

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